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  Effects of oxygen vacancies on the electrochemical performance of tin oxide  
N. Li, K. Du, G. Liu, Y. P. Xie, G. M. Zhou, J. Zhu, F. Li*, H. M. Cheng
Journal of Materials Chemistry A,1 (5), 1536-1539 [PDF Download]
    Using an aberration-corrected transmission electron microscope, we observed the oxygen vacancies, profiled the concentration in the SnO2 delta nanocrystals on an atomic scale, and estimated the amount of oxygen vacancies to be ca. 3.3 atom%. The SnO2-delta nanocrystals show much improved initial Coulombic efficiency, rate capability and specific capacity compared with stoichiometric SnO2 when used as an anode material for lithium ion batteries.
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